Smart energy use, flexibility, cost reduction, resource-saving, and environmental efficiency are just a few of the advantages that a battery energy storage system may provide. BESSs span from simple domestic devices to large-scale systems utilized in utilities and industrial uses, with a wide variety of power and storage capacity.
What Is Battery Energy Storage?
Rechargeable battery energy storage systems store energy from solar panels or the electric grid and provide it to a house or business. They can readily execute things that were previously difficult or impossible, such as peak shaving and load changing, because they feature modern technology that normal batteries lack.
A BESS is a hybrid system that includes both low-level and high-level software as well as hardware components. The following are the major components of the BESS:
A Battery System: It is made up of separate battery cells that convert chemical to electrical energy. The cells are organized into modules, which then create battery packs.
Battery Management System (BMS): A BMS provides security to the battery system. BMS monitors battery cells' health, monitors parameters and states including state-of-charge (SOC) and state-of-health (SOH), and protects them from fires and other threats.
Power Conversion System (PCS): The PCS transforms the direct current (DC) supplied by batteries into the alternating current (AC) needed by facilities. Bi-directional inverters are used in battery energy storage systems to allow charging and discharging.
Energy Management System (EMS): The energy flow inside a battery storage system is monitored and controlled by this part. The work of a BMS, a PCS, and other BESS components is coordinated by an EMS. An EMS can effectively manage the system's power resources by collecting and analyzing energy data.
KEY CHARACTERISTICS OF BESS
Energy capacity: The highest amounts of energy that a battery can store is known as its energy capacity. It is commonly described in amps x hour (AH).
Rated power capacity: The rated power capacity of a battery is the highest level power it can deliver under optimal conditions. It is commonly described in kW and is given by the battery manufacturer.
Storage duration: A battery with a larger rated power capacity can deliver more power and be used for a wider range of applications.
Cycle life: The cycle life of a battery refers to the number of times that may be charged and discharge before it has to be replaced.
State of charge: The battery's current state of charge is represented by the state of charge. It's usually expressed as a percentage.
Round-trip efficiency: Round-trip efficiency is the ratio between the energy-charged into the battery and the amount of energy returned by the battery when used. It is typically measured in percentage and will vary depending on several factors such as the battery chemistry and the application.
Self Discharge Rate: Internal chemical processes in batteries cause self-discharge, which reduces the battery's stored charge without any connection between the electrodes or any external circuit.
Nominal Cell Voltage: The average voltage of a battery's cells is called the nominal cell voltage. It is commonly described in volts and indicates the maximum voltage that a single cell can produce when completely charged.